~~Kunzhigitova G.B., Ahanov B.F., Zhanibekova E. Z.
SKSU named after M.Auezov, Shymkent, Kazakhstan
Мақалада оқу үрдісінде белсенді және интербелсенді оқыту әдістемелердің қолданылуы қарастырылды. Мақалада белсенді және интербелсенді оқыту әдістемелердің түрлері сипатталған. Мақалада белсенді және интербелсенді оқыту әдістемелердің жүзеге асыру талаптары келтірілді.
В статье приведены примеры активных методов обучения, которые побужда¬ют обучающихся к активной мыслительной и практической деятельности в процессе овладения учебным материалом. Активное обуче¬ние предполагает использование такой системы методов, кото¬рая направлена главным образом не на изложение преподавате¬лем готовых знаний, их запоминание и воспроизведение, а на самостоятельное овладение учащимися знаниями и умениями в процессе активной мыслительной и практической деятельности.
Active learning methods - the methods that motivate students to active thinking and action in the process of mastering the material being studied. Active learning suggests to use a system of methods, which paradise mainly focus not on exposition of teachers of ready knowledge, their storage and playback, and the students' self-mastery of knowledge and skills in the process of active thinking and practice.
Especially active learning consists in the fact that they are based on inherent motivation to practical and intellectual activity, without which no progress in the mastery of knowledge.
The emergence and development of active methods is due to the fact that before the training was faced with new challenges, not only to provide students with the knowledge, but also to ensure the formation and development of cognitive interests and skills, creative thinking and skills of independent intellectuals. The emergence of new problems caused by the rapid development of information. If before the knowledge gained at school, college, university, to serve the people for a long time, sometimes for the whole of his working life , at the age of information boom, they need to be constantly updated, which can be achieved mainly by self-education, and this requires human cognitive activity and self-dependence.
There are many classification methods In teaching. We are interested in the one at the base, which - the role of the student in the learning process, traditionally there are three methods:
1) Passive: where students play the role of the "object" of learning that become familiar with and reproduce the material with which they have been passed by a teacher, a source of knowledge. The basic techniques are lectures, readings, interviews.
2) Active: where students are "subject" of the training, do creative tasks, enter into a dialogue with the teacher. Basic methods are creative tasks, questions from student to teacher, and from teacher to student.
3) Interactive: from England. (Inter - "between"; act - "action"), so the literal translation refers to interactive methods - allowing to learn to interact with each other, and online training - training built on the cooperation of all students, including the teacher. These methods are most suited person oriented approach because they assume co-training (collective, cooperative learning), both the student and the teacher are the subjects of the educational process. Teacher often serves only as an organizer of the learning process, the group leader, facilitator, creator of conditions for learning initiatives.
In addition, online training is based on the direct interaction of students with the experience and expertise of their friends, as most interactive exercises drawn to the experience of the learner, not just academic. New knowledge, skill is based on such experience.
Studies conducted in the 80's. National Training Center (USA, Maryland) showed that interactive methods can dramatically increase % of learning. The results of this study are reflected in the table, known as the "pyramid of instruction." Which shows that the lowest percentage of assimilation have passive techniques (05% lecture, reading - 10%), and the largest interactive (discussion group - 50%, the practice through action - 75%, other training, or immediate use - 90%). It is appropriate to the Chinese proverb: "Tell me, I forget. Show me, I remember. Let me do it, and it will be my forever. "
Hereafter advisable to present list of most widespread active and interactive methods. It is very difficult to classify interactive methods, because most of them is complicated compound of many methods. We offer very conventional combination of methods in groups, first of all on their using purposes. Usage of any particular methods depends on different cases: purpose of lesson, the experience of teachers and students, their taste (Scheme 1).
Scheme 1. Active and interactive teaching methods
1. Creative tasks. 6. Warm-up (of different kinds).
2. Work in small groups. 7. Learning and consolidation of new information material:
7.1. Interactive lecture.
7.2. Student in the teacher's role.
7.3. Working with a visual aid.
7.4. Each teaches everyone.
3. Learning games:
3.3. Educational. 8. Working with documents (and in it):
8.1. Preparation of documents.
8.2. Written work to justify their position.
4. Use of public resources.
4.1. Invitation specialist.
9. Discussion of complex and controversial issues (as well).
9.1 Pops - formula.
9.2. Project method.
9.3 The scale of opinions.
5. Social projects.
5.2. Exhibitions, performances, performances, etc. 10. Resolution of problems (as well as).
10.2. A decision tree.
10.3. Negotiation and mediation.
The problem of the individual's activity in education - one of the important psychological, pedagogical science, and in educational practice.
The problem of the individual's activity in education as the leading factor to achieve learning goals, the overall development of the personality, its professional training requires a fundamental understanding of the essential elements of education (content, form, methods) and asserts the idea that the strategic direction of increased learning is not extra traffic ¬ my information, not strengthening and increasing the number of inspections, and the creation of didactic and psychological mustache ¬ lovy comprehension exercises, the inclusion of the student at a level not only intellectual, but personal and social activity.
The level of such activity due to individual learning based its main logic, and the level of learning motivation, which determines in many respects not only the level of cognitive of human activity, but also the uniqueness of his personality.
In line with the traditional logic of training including such steps as initial introduction to the material, or the perception in the broader sense, his understanding, his special work to consolidate and, finally, the mastery of the material, ie transforming it into practice.
There are three levels of activity:
• Active play - characterized by a movement of student to understand, remember, reproduce knowledge, possess ways of usage of the sample.
• The activity of interpretation - by the desire to have trained person to grasp the meaning of the study, make connections, learn ways to contribute knowledge in the changed conditions.
• Creative activity - involves striving training hoped-for theoretical understanding of knowledge, independent search for solutions to problems, intense manifestation of cognitive interests.
The theoretical analysis of this problem, advanced educational experience shows that the most constructive solution is to create psychological and educational environment for learning, in which the student can take an active person position most fully express himself as the subject of educational activities, their individual "I". All of the above brings up the concept of "active learning".
Active learning methods - the methods that encourage students to actively thinking and action in the process of mastering the material being studied. Active learning involves the use of a system of methods, which mainly focus on the presentation of a teacher is not ready with the knowledge, memorization and reproduction of a student, and the student to self-mastery of knowledge and skills in the process of active cognitive and practical activities.
To enhance the cognitive activity of students using traditional teaching methods with the use of such methods as the question when presenting the material, the inclusion of some practical exercises, case studies, access to visual and technical facilities, the impulse to record keeping, creating reference notes.
Speciality of active learning is to encourage students to practical and intellectual activity, without which no progress in the acquisition of knowledge.
The appearance and development of active methods arise due to the process of learning new tasks, consisting in the fact that not only give students the knowledge, but also ensure the formation and development of cognitive interests and skills, creative thinking and skills of independent intellectuals. The appearence of new problems caused by the rapid development of information.
Cognitive activity means intellectually emotional response to the process of learning, desire of student to learning, to implement individual and common tasks, the interest of the teacher and other students.
Under the cognitive autonomy is understood the desire and ability to think independently, the ability to navigate in the new situation, to find its own approach to the problem, the desire to understand not only assimilated academic information, but also ways of getting it, a critical approach to the judgments of others, regardless of their own opinions.
Cognitive activity and cognitive independence - qualities that characterize the intellectual abilities for learning. Like other skills, they appear and develop in business. Lack of conditions for the manifestation of activity and independence leads to the fact that they do not develop. That's why only the extensive use of active methods that encourage thinking and action, and from the very beginning of the learning process moving so important intellectual qualities of the person providing further his active desire to constantly learning and applying them in practice.
Cognitive activity means intellectual emotional response to the learning process, the student's commitment to learning, to the fulfillment of individual and general assignments, interest to activity of the teacher and other students.
Under the cognitive autonomy is understood the desire and ability to think independently, ability oriented in the new situation, to find their approach to solving the problem, the desire to understand not only assimilated training Institute formation, but also the way of obtaining the knowledge, critical approach to under judgments others, regardless of their own opinions.
Cognitive activity and cognitive independence are qualities that characterize the intellectual abilities of students for learning. Like other skills, they appear and develop in business.
The most complete classification gave M. Novick, standing out imitative and nonimitative simulation of active learning. Certain groups of methods determine respectively and form (kind)of classes: imitative and nonimitative.
A characteristic feature of nonimitative lessons is the lack of model of the stydying process or activity. Activation of training is carried out through the establishment of direct and inverse links between related teachers and students.
A distinctive feature is the availability of training simulation model of the process (simulation of individual or collective ¬ number of professional activity). Feature imitation methods - dividing them into gaming and non-gaming. Methods, implementation of which students should play different roles, relate to gaming.
M. Novick points to their high effect in the assimilation of material,since it is approached substantial educational approach material to specific practical or professional activities. This can significantly increase motivation and active learning.
As is known about active learning methods are problematic situations, learning by doing, group and pair work, role plays, dramatization, theatricality, creative play, "Dialog", "brainstorming", "round table" discussion, project method, the methods of surprise admiration, confidence, success, dialogue, heuristic questions, game design, simulation training, organizational and business games (OBG), the organizational and mental games (OMG), discussion, synectics and others.
We see that active learning technology includes methods that stimulate cognitive activity of students, involving each of them in mental and behavioral activity, and is aimed at understanding the refinement, enrichment and personal acceptance of the existing value of each student.
A. Diesterweg believed that students should be forced to work, to work independently, to train it to ensure that it was inconceivable to him only as their own, something to learn.
The most acceptable methods of active learning in the primary school is a success.
What is waiting for the student, having crossed the threshold educational institution? Only success. Situation of success - a necessary condition for outgrowth of positive attitude to learning in an active, creative (Figure 2).
Scheme 2. Educational technology.
Success is due to a sense of emotional lift, creates a sense of inner well-being. One time, having success, the student will again and again seeks to it.
Feels confident the one that rests in the activities and uses his personal psychological characteristics. And in order to not to lose confidence, it is necessary to help child’s development. Using the principle of "mini - maxi ¬ self" (the amount of knowledge is given to the maximum, the minimum standard is assessed; maximum of the marks, the minimum values) helps to maintain confidence.
Lesson - it's not a competition for the best results, it is a joint activity, where the sample spirit of sympathy and co-creation.
What is the benefit for the students, having such learning process? The most important thing is he has no fear of the unknown, there is a need for communication, self – independence of the solution of educational problems, he is able to prove his and respects other people's opinions, has the ability to self-control and empathy, bright emotions.
One of the most successful methods of training is a method of "admiration".
The method of "admiration" - is a form of emotional learning new things. It can often be used in the classroom reading, fine arts, music, "The world around us," though rarely in mathematics. For example, the music of Brahms spend minutes "admiring" the students daisies, the first spring garden flowers. What a lovely things! In a bush grow different color, different sizes, small amazing flowers of spring ... And start writing still life.
The development of active methods arise due to the process of learning new tasks: to ensure the formation and development of cognitive interests and skills, creative thinking and skills of independent intellectuals. The emergence of new problems caused by the rapid development of information. In the age of rapid growth of the information they need to be constantly updated, which can be achieved through self-education, which requires individuals to cognitive activity and independence, qualities that characterize the intellectual abilities to the teachings of which are shown and developed in the activity. Lack of conditions for the manifestation of these qualities leads to the fact that they do not develop. That's why only the extensive use of active methods that encourage thinking and practice, and develops such important intellectual qualities of the person providing further his active desire to constantly learning and applying them in practice.
A distinctive feature of the development of education in the world today - the increased attention of the governments of most countries to the problems of quality and efficiency. Education is a strategic area, providing national security. On the competitiveness of the country begin to judge the level of educational attainment of the younger generation. Education is one of the most important national projects, which put President Vladimir Putin, the government and the teachers.
Active learning methods - a combination of methods and techniques that cause qualitative and quantitative changes in thought processes because of age and under the influence of the environment, as well as specially organized educational and training actions and their own experience of the child.
Active methods do guide, enrich, systematizing role in the mental development of children, encourage active reflection on knowledge. The technology of active learning - is training the appropriate powers and abilities of schoolchildren.
Conclusion: The use of active methods of theoretical training will actually lead to productive thinking and practice of students in the process of mastering the studied material.