~~UDК 37.091.3: 004.4 , 27
THEORETIKAL AND METHODOLOGICAL BASES OF USE OF MULTIMEDIA IN THE TEACHING PROCESS
Kunzhigitova G.B., Tashmetova I.I.
South Kazakhstan State University named after M.O.Auezov, Shymkent, Kazakhstan
Мақалада мультимедияның теориялық және әдістемелік негіздерін оқу үрдісінде қолданылуы қарастырылған
В статье указаны возможности повышения эффективности учебно-воспитательного процесса за счет введения в него программированного мультимедийного обучения.
The fastest of all is thought
because it runs without stopping.
Nowadays the idea of programmed instruction in connection with the appearance of more powerful computers can solve the optimization problem and improve the efficiency of the educational process. Principles of multimedia based learning is largely borrowed from the theory of programmed teaching, so we consider this issue in more detail.
The idea of programmed teaching emerged in early 50's in the USA. Its author was Professor Skinner, an expert in the psychology of learning, made a suggestion to improve the management of the learning process by constructing it in line with the scientific evidence about the process of learning.
In our country of the first studies about programmed schooling was told by members of the Soviet delegation, attended the meeting of UNESCO and the United Nations (Paris, 1962) about problems of education. The idea of programmed schooling attracted Soviet educators and scientists who saw in them potential to resolve many acute and urgent issues, facing the Soviet school of all levels.
In programmed teaching, discussed in spring 1962, UNESCO has been dominated by the ideas, views and experiences of American psychologists and educators. The emergence of new pedagogical ideas of programmed teaching in the country coincided with the development of Soviet Cybernetics and was associated with the penetration of pedagogy ideas and methods of cybernetics, logic, statistics. They allowed to consider the entire educational process from the point of view of the control system, which helped to identify its most vulnerable links.
Study of optimization problem of teaching led to the fact that in pedagogy has begun to get into and widely used statistical methods for analyzing the learning process, which provides the ability to objectively judge the extent, in which level the work of teachers and students achieves their goals. Analysis of this results providing the most effective methods of communication training material and its assimilation. The study confirmed the possibility of increasing the efficiency of the educational process through the introduction of a programmed learning. However, while developing the principles of programmed teaching, and especially in realization in practice, unfortunately, there were extremes. Vividly they appeared in an attempt to counter the traditional programmed teaching, in exaggerating the value of "teaching machines" and their features, downplaying the role of the teacher in the introduction of programmed instruction.
In educational and psychological literature of the day a lot of papers in which the authors tried to give an unambiguous definition about programmed teaching. Many different views in the formulation of this phenomenon show that researchers understand it in different ways, and therefore gives it a different place in the educational process.
A.V.Prokofev believes that "... the essence of programmed teaching is that modern mass group and learning processes are given to specific ways and means of customized features and introduces an element of the continuous monitoring of learning. To a certain extent, and increase the effectiveness of group mass education. " Consequently, the author examines the nature of programmed teaching as an important educational factor that increases the efficiency of mass education through processes of individualization and differentiation of the educational process.
A.G. Molibog gave definition about programmed teaching as "a learning on the best programs with the best learning management." In this definition, the first place is optimality. Because each student's own program is optimal, while achieving an optimum can be said that the individualization of the learning process.
E.L. Kaler defines it as "... a set of methods and tools for the scientific organization of the educational process on the basis of the consistent application of certain elements of the principle of automatic control." In the first place the author raises the scientific organization of the educational process that initially attracted the attention of scientists to programmed teaching. Under the successive application author obviously means a program that in the learning process based on the principles of automatic control for the specific learner providing an individual approach.
Thus, it is attributed to programmed teaching a number of achievements, such as individualisation and differentiation, scientific management and the learning process as a result - increasing its efficiency. This allowed us to suggest that the multimedia training will achieve equally good results.
Revealing the essence of programmed teaching, we must consider a range of issues to improve the structure and content of the training material that will help to optimize the overall learning process, to develop a management program by the process of passing the training material, and how to optimize their study and learning, providing continuous control of the process learning in general.
All elements of the learning process with a programmed learning is scientific justification. Since learning - is a mutual process, which includes the activities of teachers and students, it is possible to determine direct links directed from teacher to student and back again, going from student to teacher. Direct link is in the process of training and education of students in all forms of education, the use of different methods and tools for learning. Feedback provides information about the quality, depth, strength of learning content coming to the teacher in control of knowledge and skills, observation of students’ behavior, etc.
Information and communication technologies have become an integral part of modern life. There is the implementation of new information technologies in all spheres of human activity. This process is accompanied by significant changes in educational theory and practice.
Creating multimedia educational product, and so the first thing is about the use of multimedia in education, opening the following questions:
• What is multimedia?
• Why do I need (or unnecessary) to use multimedia in education (teaching)?
• What is the best use of multimedia in teaching?
In his book, "Multimedia in Education" Bent B. Andresen and Kate van den Brink suggest the following models of pedagogical scenarios of multimedia:
• Scenario 1: the use of a linear representation of multimedia training materials.
• Scenario 2: the use of hypertext multimedia (non-linear representation of the training materials).
• Scenario 3: the use of multimedia teaching aids and manuals.
• Scenario 4: Create a multimedia (instruments and components).
Before you begin to create the product, the makers should clearly present the steps of creating a multimedia product. Conventionally, they can be classified as follows:
• Planning (purpose of creation, the target audience, the approximate contents, the relationship between the themes, the concept of the interface, the development of criteria for evaluating the product);
• Gather information (search, analysis and selection of relevant information, a new interpretation of the content, the decision about how to view the information);
• create a multimedia resource (means selection, preparation of media fragments, creating multimedia educational resource);
• assessment of the created product (valuation of created product in accordance with the criteria developed, expert evaluation, pilot testing).
Thus, this product can be multimedia presentation, hypertext multimedia resources, interactive multimedia resources (tutorials, test shell, etc.), distance training courses, etc.
To create educational multimedia product must meet the following software:
• a means of producing multimedia presentations (Macromedia Flash, MS PowerPoint);
• Editors of hypertext (MS FrontPage, Macromedia DreamWeaver);
• means of developing multimedia training courses (Macromedia Director or Authorware Professional);
• software for the creation and processing of digitized graphics, animation, sound, video.
There are four main ways of using Macromedia Flash software to meet the challenges of training, the first two are mandatory for all.
• creation of static and dynamic visual aids;
• creating tests;
• creating interactive training programs to provide educational information;
• Creation of educational web-sites of various purpose (remote sites to support the training and distance learning sites in the submission of methodological experience of the subject site).
That is, with this software, anyone can create:
• screen (animation) to their multimedia products;
• means clarity on the topics, the study which cause some difficulties for students (diffusion, historical battles, computer architecture, etc.);
• tests, considering the age characteristics of the students;
• in Action Script language to create interactive windows, pull-down menus, "talking" button ", etc.
In conclusion, we note that activates learning, thus there is - the development of thinking skills, group work, students learn to work in a global network, look for the right information, to create educational Web-quests to place on free hosting, as well as to create visual aids , tests, multimedia presentations and use them in the learning process in compliance with all copyright laws.